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Plant sprayer indoor
Plant sprayer indoor are a variety of machines designed to plant pesticides, or chemicals used in agriculture, indoors. They are also known as airblast or fan-based sprayers. Sprayers are most often used indoors for the convenience of application, due to the high cost of outdoor sprayers and the difficulty in making sure that spray drift will not occur outside. Sprayers are most commonly used by plant nurseries, landscapers, and greenhouse operators. They are also used for pesticide application to trees and other foliage in orchards and farms. The advantages to using sprayers indoors are lower costs, reduced risk of drift, easier access to areas where large volumes of product need to be applied, reduced environmental and health risks, and reduced employee exposure.
Indoor sprayers generally work by pulling in a volume of air from an air intake, blowing it through a mixing system where it is combined with the pesticide, and spraying it out through one or more nozzles, onto foliage or other surfaces. They may be either positive-displacement or positive-pressure.
The sprayer can be a complete, stand-alone unit, or in most cases, used in conjunction with a trailer. With many positive-displacement models, a nozzle is placed above the mixing chamber, which will spray a given volume of product per minute. Pressurized models, however, usually have nozzles that spray out a steady stream at a given pressure. This type of system is called a positive-pressure system.
Prior to using an indoor sprayer, a business must test the air quality of its space. The first step is to conduct an air sample. This entails drawing a volume of air from the building, filtering out the bulk of the contaminates (such as dirt, pollen, and bacteria) and putting a small sample of the air through a device called a sampler to record the chemical components. The next step is to compare the results from the sample and the sample that the sprayer should be calibrated to spray. If the results from the sample match the results from the sprayer, it can be assumed that the space is suitable for spraying.
Since the early 20th century, there have been pesticides specifically designed for indoor use. Many of these pesticides were developed by the pesticide industry itself, while others have been created by inventors looking to solve a specific problem. Still others were developed by universities with a focus on pest control. A few companies have developed products specifically to eliminate any chance of off-target poisoning. With these products, there is a strong possibility of killing the user, but no effect on the people around the user. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has approved products for indoor use, but many products for indoor use have not been tested for safety. Those products that have been tested can generally be classified into three groups: 1) those that are approved by the EPA (e.g., Pristine II) and are relatively safe, 2) those that are approved by the EPA and are relatively safe (e.g., Pristine III), and 3) those that are considered experimental.
Pesticide use indoors may require the use of certain tools. Some of these tools are:
A backpack sprayer. This is a portable sprayer which often includes a trigger to provide greater accuracy of the spray. It will spray in a volume of about 2.5 ,liters/minute and is often used to spray in smaller areas.
A vacuum or cyclone dust sampler. These tools will collect airborne particles of the pesticide. They usually do not measure the amount of airborne particles or the concentration of airborne particles, these are usually done using a sprayer.
Sustainable pest control
The concept of sustainable pest control is defined as the "intentional, economical, appropriate, and ecologically sound use of pest control methods that: 1) maintain or enhance ecological health, 2) reduce or eliminate negative impacts on non-pest organisms and habitats, 3) and reduce or eliminate negative impacts on people and human systems." The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, the Agronomy Society of America, and the American Society for Testing and Materials have published a joint position paper which was developed by the Sustainable Pest Management committee of the American Society of Agronomy and the Food and Drug Administration's Agricultural Biological Standards Board's Pesticide Management Board, all of which recommend that sustainable pest control be integrated into all pest management practices for effective pest management.This paper highlights the need for sustainable pest control practices as part of an overall, integrated pest management program.
There are multiple ways to achieve this. These include:
Eliminate pesticide residues in food, water, air, soil, and bodies of water through zero-tolerance policies
Promote habitat conservation through no-spray buffers. This is achieved by using buffer strips of natural vegetation and soil, buffers around food crops, buffers around drinking water sources, and buffers around waste water management systems.
Promote integrated pest management through integrated pest management practices. The goal of this approach is to reduce the amount of pesticide necessary in the treatment of pest insects.
Promote pest resistance through crop rotation, use of host-plant resistance, and other biocontrol techniques.
Promote integrated pest management of other species through integrated pest management practices for weeds and other non-target species.
Category:Pesticides and agricultural chemicals
Category:Environmental impact of agriculture